Subject : Ethernet Interface FAQ/PSD

Description :

Tips sheet for the Sun Ethernet Interface

1.0: About Ethernet Interface
1.1: Ethernet Introduction
1.2: Pre-Installation notes
1.3 : Built-In Ethernet on Sun
1.4 : Optional Ethernet Interface cards.
1.4.1 : SEC - Sbus Ethernet Controller
2.0 Debugging 
2.1:  Open Boot Prom Diagnostics
2.2:  TBD
2.3 etherfind
2.4: nfsstat
2.5: netstat
2.6: ping
2.7: spray
2.8: snoop
2.8: how to turn on debug
3.0 Common How Tos 
3.1  Hardware/Software Installation
3.2 : Solaris 2nd Ethenet Sbus Installation.
4.0 Frequently Asked Questions 
4.1 Hardware Diagnostics
4.1.1: How to verify that the workstation is recognising harware for the ethernet interfaces
4.1.3: How to set the TPE Link test - for 10baseT configurations.
4.3 : Cabling Information
4.4   Changing primary hostname to 2nd interface.
4.5   I Have mutiple interfaces, but they show up as the same ethernet MAC address
4.6  How to know the actual Ethernet Address?
4.7 03.12Q: Does my Ethernet coax have to be grounded?  How?
4.8 Booting over net.
4.9 General Troubleshooting
4.10 : Le and Ie Diagnostic erros and messages:
4.11 How do I define a second TCP/IP address for my ethernet?
5.0: Patches 
5.1: Ethernet Driver Patches for SunOS: 
5.2: Ethernet Driver Patches for Solaris: 
5.3: ARP Patches for SunOS
6.0: Known Bugs & RFEs 
6.1: RFEs
6.2: Bugs
7.0: References 
7.1  Glossary:
7.2: Important Man Pages
7.3: Sun SRDBs
7.4: Sun Educational Services
7.5: Solaris Documentation
7.6: Third Party Documentation
8.0: Supportability 
9.0 Additional Support 
1.0: About Ethernet Interface

이 Tip Sheet document는 SunOS 와 Solaris 에서 구현되는 Ethernet Interface에
관련된 다양한 정보를 묘사하고 있다. 즉 Ethernet Interface에 대한 소개 그리고
가장 일반적인 Configuration 그리고 문제점등에 대해서 다룬다.
이 자료는 Sun 호환 기종에 관련하여 Network 구조의 가장 low Layer, 즉
OSI model에서 Physical, Data Link Layer에 대해서 집중적으로 다루고 있다.

1.1: Ethernet Introduction

Network는 최소한 하나 이상의 W/S의 집합이며 같은 Type 또는 다른 Type 간의
서로 물리적인 정렬에 의해 연결되어 있다.
Ethernet은 LAN 환경에서 w/s을 연결하는 기술의 하나이다. Ethernet/802.3은
현재 multi-mode fiber(10baseFL) 뿐만 아니라 thin-net coaxial cable (10base2), 
thick-net coaxial cable (10base5), UTP-unshielded twisted-pair STP-Sheilded 
twisted pair (10baseT) 에서도 Running 된다.
Ethernet에서 최대 Data 전송속도는 10 megabits/second(raw data)이다.
Physical layer에서 이러한 구현은 IEEE 802.3 과 Ethernet 사양에 적용되는
10 Mbps CSMA/CD protocol-based network interface을 위해 Media Access Control
Control (MAC) 기능을 제공한다.
Ethernet은 transceivers(MAU - Medium Attachment Unit), transceiver cables(AUI),
Shielded coaxial cables 그리고 일반적으로 사용되는 Unshieled Twisted Pair(UTP)
그리고 Shielded Twited Pair(STP)등을 사용하여 상호 W/S 간에 통신한다.
대부분의 workstation들은 transceiver cables(AUI) 또는 Twisted Pair(TPE)등으로
network에 바로 접속되어 있다.

1.2: Pre-Installation notes

만약 Cabling작업시 10baseT TPE Connect Type 이라면 전화 Line Connect Type과
비슷하기 때문에 주의를 요한다. 잘못 Cabling이 되면 computer 뿐만 아니라
network에 손상을 입힐수 있다.

그리고 10base2 또는 10base5에서 AUI transciever를 사용할 때 외장 transceiver
(MAU)와 연결하기 전에 system power를 끄기를 권장한다. 초기 MAU Power가
system에 손상을 줄수 있다.

1.3 : Built-In Ethernet on Sun

Sun4c Architecture:
 Sparc1, Sparc1+, Sparc2, Sparc IPC, Sparc IPX, Sun4/300 :
 Hardware  provides ethernet capabilities with a built-in 15-pin DB-15 AUI Connection. 

Sun4m Architecture:
 SPARCstation-5, SPARCstation-10, SPARCstation-20 and,SPARCclassic systems:
  Comes with two types of Ethernet interfaces.
  The Symbol -  -is used to identify the ethernet ports.
	RJ45 connector- for 10BaseT (Twisted- Pair Ethernet or TPE)
	AUI connector-  for 10Base2 (Thick Ethernet) 10base5(Thin Ethernet)
	 transceiver dependent.
	 The AUI port uses a Mini-26 connector which is below the Parallel port
	 and requires an AUI adaptor cable -X981A (530-2021). SS10 & LX splits
	 audio and AUI on a mini-26/db15 AUI adaptor X987A (530-1856). 
    하나의 Ethernet Controller에서 두개의 Type AUI, TPE port가 있지만
   단지 하나만이 연결된다. 먼저 AUI port가 test 되고 다음 AUI test 가
  실패하면 TPE port를 test하고 active 시킨다.
The SPARCstation Voyager: 
  includes  does not support AUI Ethernet connections. 

Sun4d Architecture:	
For SparcServers :
  The main network interface is an SBus card on the system master board, 
  which is the system board in card cage slot 0. 

Solaris X86 Architecture:
  Dependent on Network Interface card (NIC) installed.
  See X86 documentation on supported NIC's.

Transceiver will vary with the type of network.

1.4 : Optional Ethernet Interface cards.

지원이 되는 SBus LANCE Ethernet controller는 여러가지 다양하다.
Buffer가 있는 ethernet card는 Ethernet DMA transfer buffering을 위해
128-KB의 memory를 포함하고 있다. SunOS 와 Solaris Software는
"style 2" Data Link Service를 제공하는 Ethernet device driver를 포함한다.

Interface cards utilizing IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD 
 Second Ethernet (all SBus and only 3/E VME) 
 SBus SCSI/Buffered Ethernet Card (SBE/S) 
 SBus Fast SCSI Buffered Ethernet Card (FSBE/S) 
 SBus Differential SCSI Buffered Ethernet Card (DSBE/S) 
 SBus Quad Ethernet Controller (SQEC) 

Other SunLink Options: 
 Contact your Sun Representive, SunExpress or Other PSD's for infomation on:  
        SBus Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI/S) 
        SBus High-Speed Interface (HSI/S) 
        SBus Token Ring Interface (TRI/S) 
        Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) 

이하에서 List되는 Card는 모든 Sun 호환 workstations 그리고 SBus slot을 갖는
server에서 지원된다. 그리고 Solaris 1.1.1 operating system revision 또는 
그 이상에선 OpenBoot PROM Revision이 2.0 또는 그 이상이어야 한다.

1.4.1 : SEC - Sbus Ethernet Controller 

	X540 PN 501-1450
	X543 PN 501-1881	
	Ethernet Connectors:
	Switches -
	 BNC - cheapernet 1-6 ON, 7-8 OFF.
	 AUI - ethernet : 1-6 OFF, 7-8 ON (+12vdc)

        Normally, the +12VDC is turned off. If you need to turn the +12VDC on,
        you can do so if there is only one internal hard disk drive installed
        in a two hard disk drive system. For SPARCstation IPX systems with the
        internal 424 Mbyte hard disk drive installed, the +12VDC on option
        is not allowed.
        Not Supported in SPARCstation 5, 10, 20 Systems


	PN 501-1902
	Ethernet connector:
	- RJ45 10baseT
	J0302 = OUT : enable TPE link Test
	J0302 = IN : disable TPE link Test

	PN 501-2015
	Ethernet connector- RJ45 10baseT
	 J0302 = OUT : enable TPE link Test
	 J0302 = IN : disable TPE link Test

	PN: 501-1869
	Ethernet connector:
	  14-pin champ connector
	     10base5 adaptor 530-1812
	     10baseT Adapter 530-1813
	 J0202 In Enable 10base5 Ethernet
	 J0302 in Enable 10base-T Ethernet (tpe false)
 SPARCclassic 계열과 SPARCstation LX 계열에서는 지원되지 않는다.

 SBE/S card 상에서 Twisted Pair Ethernet interface는 system 과 Ethernet Hub
 간 cable connection을 검사하는 Link Integrity Test를 지원하지 않는다.
 만약 SBE/S card 상에서 Link Integrity Test 가 10BASE-T Hub에서 enable
 되어 있다면 network가 기능하지 않을 것이다. no carrier와 같은 Failure,
 rlogin 또는 ping command에 반응하지 않을 것이다. 10BASE-T Hub 상에서는
 Link Integrity Test를 Disable 하라.
 If the Link Integrity Test cannot be disabled on the Hub, a workaround
  is to use Adapter Cable 530-1812-01 and an AUI to 10BASE-T Adapter, such
  as the AT&T StarLAN 10 Network AUI Adapter.

	PN 501-2655
        SBus Quad Ethernet Controller (SQEC)는 4개의 fully-buffered
        Ethernet port를 제공한다. Ethernet channel은 각각 link integrity LED
        를 포함하면서 독립적으로 10 Mbps로 작동된다.
	Ethernet connectors:
	 RJ45 10baseT
        TPE Link Integrety Test는 Open Boot Prom을 통해 enable/disable된다.

        100BaseT Lan Technology. SunFastEthernet(TM) adapter cards는 초당
        10/100 Mbit에서 작동하는 dual-mode high-speed Ethernet SBus card이다.
        만약 OBP version이 2.3 이전이면 OBP version을 upgrade하여야 한다.
        10 Mbps 또는 100 Mbps speed로 auto-sense하는 특성을 갖는다.
        Fast Ethernet Alliance 사양에 부응하는 third party Fast Ethernet 
        hub/switch를 필요로 한다.
      	 RJ45 :
         MII : Media Independent Interface (MII), 다양한 type의 wiring에
          걸쳐 작동이 되도록 external third party transceiver에 연결되는
          Interface. TPE Link Integrety Test는 Open Boot Prom을 통해
	 SunOS 4.1.3 or Solaris 2.3 (H/W 5/95) or higher is required.
	 SunOS requires SunFastEthernet 1.1 Software and will only work on 
	  sun4m platforms. 
	 Solaris requires the SUNWbmac package.
	2.0 Debugging 

2.1:  Open Boot Prom Diagnostics

Ethernet 과 SCSI interfaces, system memory, diskette drive controller등의
test를 위해 Open Boot Prom FORTH Diagnostic을 사용할 수 있다.
ok prompt ( FORTH Monitor)에서 FORTH Diagnostic을 수행해야 한다.
FORTH Diagnosticd은 boot PROM에 실장되어 있다.

	test net, test net-aui, test net-tpe 
	watch-net, watch-aui, watch-tpe, and watch-net-all 
	Use watch-tpe to monitor the 10BaseT (TPE) connection or watch-aui
 	to monitor the 10Base5 (thick Ethernet) connection. 

	ok watch-net-all
	 Internal loopback test -- succeeded.
	 External loopback test -- succeeded.
	Looking for Ethernet packets.
	'.' is a good packet.  'X' is a bad packet.
	Type any key to stop.
	....................(keyboard key pressed here)
	 Internal loopback test -- succeeded.
	External loopback test -- succeeded.
	Looking for Ethernet packets.
	'.' is a good packet.  'X' is a bad packet.
	Type any key to stop.

        Ethernet Transceiver MAU의 Power와 Data, LINK LED가 ON 되어 있는지를
        검사하라. 대부분의 10baseT HUB는 또한 link light를 갖고 있다.

        test net-tpe Performs an internal and external loopback test 
        on the TPE interface.

        A cable must be connected to the system TPE port and to a TPE hub or 
        the test will fail the external loopback phase. 
        If the tpe-link- (disabled), the external loopback test will appear 
        to pass even if a cable is not connected.
	On sun4 use the extended diagnostics can be used in OBP.
	Enter "x" at the monitor prompt.


2.3 etherfind
etherfind program은 Ethernet상의 packet을 찾고 주어진 expression에 맞게
정보를 print한다. -v option은 network problem을 분석할 수 있다.
etherfind를 사용하므로써 database server와 client간에 어떻게 interact하는
지를 나타낼수 있다.

2.4 nfsstat
이 utility는 NFS retransmission 비율을 측량할 수 있다. 다양한 option은
problem의 범위를 구분할 수 있다. nfsstat -z는 특정 시간동안 모아진
통계를 볼 수 있다.

 nfsstat -rc on the client as shown here.

  # nfsstat -rc

  Client rpc:
  calls      badcalls   retrans    badxids    timeouts   waits      newcreds   
  63472      0          11         0          11         0          0          
  badverfs   timers     toobig     nomem      cantsend   bufulocks  
  0          39         0          0          0          0          

time-out은 RPC time out 건수를 알린다. client는 재전송을 특정횟수 시도한후
에도 reply가 없으면 빠진다. client가 server로 부터 RPC time-out 시간내에 
reply를 받지 못한다는 것은 다음과 같음을 의미할 수 있다.

   *  Packets are lost on the network.

   *  Network congestion slows packet transmission.

   *  Packets are dropped at server's network interface or in protocol

   *  Server takes too long to handle the request.

The time-out values should be small in relation to the total number of calls
made. The request xid is retained across transmissions. If timeout and
badxid are almost the same number, it implies that most retransmitted
requests are being successfully processed.

badxid - Duplicate responses from server, the number of retransmitted
requests successfully processed. If badxid = 0, it means that retransmitted
requests are being dropped.

retrans - Retransmission count. This number reports the number of times an
RPC is retransmitted at the request of the caller. Retransmission rates that
exceed 5-10% of the total number of clients NFS calls indicate a problem
that needs further investigation. The retransmission count is affected by
NFS dynamic retransmission algorithm. Dynamic retransmission is enabled when
the client and server are on different networks. Since bridges do not
trigger dynamic retransmission, you must anticipate bottlenecks at routers
and gateways.

badcalls - Time-outs resulting in RPC error.

Determine when excessive symbolic links are increasing the number of RPC
calls with nfsstat -ns as shown next.

readlink - Shows the number of reads to symbolic links. If the percentage of
RPC calls approaches 10%, this could mean there are too many symbolic links.
See Chapter 4, "Tips on Fine Tuning" for techniques to reduce symbolic

For an example of network debugging see Managing NIS and NFS. [19])

2.5 netstat

This tool shows the status of the network by the number of network
collisions, by identifying the active sockets, routing, and traffic. You can
see cumulative statistics for packets transferred, errors, collisions,
network addresses for the interface, and the maximum transmission unit
(mtu), depending on the option selected.

The next example shows netstat.
which gives cumulative statistics since the last boot.

  # netstat -i 
   Name  Mtu  Net/Dest      Address        Ipkts  Ierrs Opkts  Oerrs Collis Queue 
   lo0   8232     localhost      11174  0     11174  0     0      0     
   le0   1500  hodware        302265 5     119032 1     9406   0     

The first column shows the number of packets handled, followed by the errors
made in transmitting or receiving them. Statistics are shown for selected
network interfaces, in this example e0, and show the total number handled
by all interfaces.

colls - Reports the number of collisions since the network booted. If output
colls is greater than 5% of output packets on one system, check the network
wiring to that system. When output colls is consistently greater than 5% of
output packets on most of the systems, it is time to consider subdividing
the network into separate networks connected by a router or a bridge. A
router can be a mixed function or communications server, or a workstation
with two network interfaces can be dedicated to providing router

A high collision/defer rate is an indication of an overloaded Ethernet.
After checking for problems with hosts on the Ethernet, the network should
be partitioned if the network-wide collision rate routinely exceeds 10%. If
the average usage level exceeds 30% it indicates an overloaded Ethernet.
Find out what is generating the traffic and change it. Check that diskless
workstations have enough memory.

Example:  netstat -k !more  -then search for interface 
    le0  qeX= qe1 ro qe2, etc.
        and the first section you see whould be
    similiar to:
ipackets 757651 ierrors 1 opackets 186505 oerrors 25 collisions 28700
defer 6678 framming 1 crc 1 oflo 0 uflo 0 missed 0 late_collisions 1
retry_error 23 nocarrier 0 inits 13 nocanput 625 allocbfail 0

notes form na.hostperf
   The way collision count is tallied depends on  the  Ethernet
     chip.   The  Intel  (ie) chip counts every occurrence, while
     the Lance (le) chip counts collision on a per-packet  basis.
     With  the Lance chip, if a packet is successfully sent after
     the first retry, the collision count is one.  If a packet is
     successfully  sent  after  two  or  more  retries,  the chip
     returns a maximum count of two collisions.  For example,  if
     packet  a  had  four retries and sometime later packet b had
     five retries, the cumulative collision count is four  -  two
     for each packet - not the real count of nine.

2.6  ping

The command ping will tell you if a machine is active and reachable over
your network. Use ping -s to show the transit times (round trip times) and
packet losses. When using ping for fault isolation, test the local host with
ping to make sure the local network interface is running. One test is to use
the ping command These 8000 packets get split into 1500-byte Ethernet packets,
thus simulating the kind of load NFS places on the network. The large packet
size is important, as some kinds of failures seem not to show up with smaller
packets. See the man page ping (8C). An example of using ping to isolate
network problems can be found in Managing NFS and NIS. [20])

2.7 spray

  reliability of your specified
packet sizes, or to determine the largest reliable size of packet for your
network.  it works over UDP/IP (nfs uses udp)
and does not
use any flow control. spray should be able to tell you whether packets are
getting dropped or delayed. Try the following command:

spray -d 750 -l 1514 -c 1000 nobs

	sending 1000 packets of length 1514 to nobs ...
		no packets dropped by nobs
		803 packets/sec, 1216802 bytes/sec
This sends 1000 packets of 1514 byte size with a 750 millisecond delay.
between the bursts. 

2.8 Snoop

It turns a Sun machine into a basic network sniffer,
able to detect Ethernet network problems. Snoop also captures a certain
number of Ethernet packets and allows you to trace the calls from each
client to each server, as shown in the next figure.

Snoop captures packets from the network and displays their contents. It uses
both the packet filter and buffer modules of the NIT interface to provide
efficient capture of packets from the networks. Captured packets can be
displayed as they are received, or can be saved to a file for later

Snoop can display packets in a single-line summary or in expanded form. In
summary form, only the data pertaining to the highest level protocol is
displayed. For example, an NFS packet will have only NFS information
displayed. The underlying RPC, UDP, IP and Ethernet frame information is
suppressed, but can be displayed if either of the verbose options are

Snoop is a useful tool if you are considering subnetting, since it provides
load statistics based on each server. The program is capable of breaking the
packet header out in order to debug it, and to see what might be the source
of incompatibility difficulties.The next screen sample shows typical DLC and
IP headers as captured in Snoop.

2.8 : How to turn on debug 

This will send verbose messages from the le driver to
/var/adm/messages, two lines for each message.

	There are two methods for turning on ledebug in Solaris 2.x
	1) Add the following entry to /etc/system and reboot:

   	     set le:ledebug=1

	2) Issue the following commands on as root:

   	     	# adb -kw /dev/ksyms /dev/mem
    	   	 (will display current)
      	 	 ledebug/W 1
       		 (will set current to 1 - be sure to use W not w)

	On 4.x, adb:
	Issue the following commands on as root:
		# adb -kw /vmunix /dev/mem
		 ledebug/W 1      (to set the in memory copy)
		 ledebug?W 1      (to set the on disk copy)

3.0 Common How Tos

3.1  Hardware/Software Installation

3.2 : Solaris 2nd Ethenet Sbus Installation.

	1.  Install a Sun  Ethernet S SBus card into the system as described in 
	     the instructions and manual provided with the card. Also refer to 
	     your Installation Guide for your model of Workstation

        2.  Close the system and connect the cables. Double check connection to
             AUI port or twisted-pair Ethernet port). 

        3.  Boot the system and become superuser. 

	4.  Touch  /reconfigure prior to reboot.
	5.  Shut down system, power off, install board (S-bus) using 
	    static precautions (a disposible Wrist strap should be included
	    in kit)

	6.  boot -r from the OK prompt if Step #1 not done

	7.  look for "le" interface number of board (look thru dmesg output).
	    or make an educated guess, and use it in steps #5, #6 and #7.

	8.   /sbin/ifconfig le1 plumb        (or le2, or le3, etc.)  
	     IMPORTANT!! This step tells Streams that card exists.

	9.  Try ifconfig -a - the card SHOULD appear. 
            If not already so done,
            create /etc/hostname.le1         (or le2, or le3, etc.).

	10.  You can try to bring up the card manually (with ifconfig le1 
             inet ...),
	     or reboot the system at this point. 

	11.  After rebooting system or bringing up the card manually, try 
	      pinging hosts on the network attached to the add-on ethernet's 
	      network.  The add-oo ethernet interface should respond correctly, 
	      should display in response to an ifconfig -a. The le device 
	      should display in the output from prtconf, and should display
   	      in the output from dmesg. 

4.0 Frequently Asked Questions

4.1 Hardware Diagnostics

4.1.1: How to verify that the workstation is recognising harware for the ethernet interfaces.
On Sparc Systems you can check the devices at the OBP ok prompt.
  devalias - displays current device aliases. 
  show-sbus -  the card will be identified in a Slot #.
  show-devs - shows the device tree  


On boot-up you will notice Entries like:
    Solaris 2.x -
	le0 is /iommu@0,10000000/sbus@0,10001000/le@0,c00000
	ledma0 at sbus0: SBus slot 4 0x8400010
	le1 at ledma0: SBus slot 4 0x8c00000 sparc ipl 6
	le1 is /iommu@0,10000000/sbus@0,10001000/ledma@4,8400010/le@4,8c00000

	lebuffer0 at sbus0: SBus slot f 0x40000
	le0 at lebuffer0: SBus slot f 0x60000 sparc ipl 6
	le0 is /iommu@f,e0000000/sbus@f,e0001000/lebuffer@f,40000/le@f,60000
	lebuffer1 at sbus0: SBus slot 0 0x40000
	le1 at lebuffer1: SBus slot 0 0x60000 SBus level 4 sparc ipl 7
	le1 is /iommu@f,e0000000/sbus@f,e0001000/lebuffer@0,40000/le@0,60000

    SunOS 4.x -
	le0 at SBus slot 0 0xc00000 pri 5
	If it is not seen with SunOS4.x, it is possible that the kernel may need reconfigured.
	check the /usr/sys/'arch'/conf/YOURKERNEL for lines that may be commented out.
	Examples (depending on System architecture):
	   	device-driver   le   
	   	device ie1 at vme24d16 ? csr 0xe88000 priority 3 vector ieintr 0x75
		device le0 at obio ? csr 0xf9000000 priority 3
  		device ie0 at obio ? csr 0x6000000 priority 3
The command prtconf will display the device tree on your system
	# prtconf -p 
	    Node 'iommu'
    	 	   Node 'sbus' 
    	 	       Node 'espdma'
             		 Node 'ledma'
            		    Node 'le'
            		Node 'le'

4.1.3: How to set the TPE Link test - for 10baseT configurations.

 The Link Integrity Test tests communications between the ethernet port in the
  server and the nearest network hub. If the test is set differently at the card 
  and the hub, communication is not possible. (A monitor attached to the server will
  display the message "no carrier" or "not responding" or similar errors. 

  Most modern 10baseT hubs support TPE Link Integrety Test, It may be advisable to
  upgrade a Hub if it does not confirm to specifications.
  If the tpe-link- test? parameter is false (disabled), the external loopback test
  will appear to pass even if a cable is not connected.

TPE Link test can be Disabled(In)or Enabled(Out) with the J0302 Jumper on most 
 network SBUS cards,
It is preferable to disable (or enable) the test through software, as shown below. 

For a single network, disable the test with one of the following commands. 

        At the OpenBoot prompt, enter: set-tpe-test 0 
        At the ok prompt, enter: false set-tpe-test 

If it becomes necessary to re-enable testing at the server, use one of the following commands. 

        At the OpenBoot prompt: set-tpe-test 1 
        At the ok prompt: true set-tpe-test 

For a system connected to more than one network, it is recommended that you program the system
 NVRAM with statements of the type: 
This is only required on special cases and older Hubs.
example: "Ethernet-node1-pathname" would be the physical device
false "  3
             2 <--[TX-]--------[RX-]--> 6
             3 <--[RX+]--------[TX+]--> 1
             6 <--[RX-]--------[TX-]--> 2

4.4   Changing primary hostname to 2nd interface.

 For newly installed systems or if a system is considered re-configurable,
  see the "sys-unconfig" command, this will allow the root user to reassign
  the host information upon reboot. 
  There is also the ability to identify a system by using alias names in the hosts file.
 Each name must be unique. Having duplicate names for different IP numbers will result in the
 system locating the first name in the list.
	 example: /etc/hosts	sparc5 server1 mailhost 
 In Solaris /etc/hosts is a link to /etc/inet/hosts, the order of hosts lookups are identified in
 	hosts: files nis dns 
	the hostname of the system is identified in the boot scripts 
	    hostname="`shcat /etc/nodename          2>/dev/null`"
	The /etc/nodename should be the same name as your primary interface /etc/hostname.XX# 
	Change /etc/nodename to the same as /etc/hostname.le1
	If no longer using the oldsystem name -
	  verify that the files in /etc/net/ticlts, ticots, ticotsord
	  reflect new nodename
	Use the grep command to check for any reference to the old system name.
	# grep oldsystemname /etc/auto*
	# grep oldsystemname /etc/host*
	# grep oldsystemname /etc/vfstab
	# grep oldsystemname /etc/dfs/dfstab
	With NIS check:
	# ypcat hosts
	With NIS+ check:
	# niscat hosts.org_dir
       1. Boot the system and become superuser. 

       2. Edit the /etc/rc.boot file: (example - using le1 interface as primary hostname)

              a. Find the line in the /etc/rc.boot file with this entry: 

              hostname="`shcat /etc/hostname.??0 2/dev/null`" 

              b. Change the hostname.??0 to hostname.??1 and save the changes. 

              The entry should now appear as: 

              hostname="`shcat /etc/hostname.??1 2/dev/null`" 

       3. Change the name in the /etc/hostname.le1 file to the new name.
       		verify the that the hostname in /etc/hostname.le1  is the name on a line
       		by itself and correct naming convention.
	    If disabling the le0, you can:	
           Type mv /etc/hostname.le0 /etc/hostname.le1 and press Return. 

       4. Check local /etc/hosts file. At minimun Your hostname line should look something like:	localhost  	myprimaryhostname loghost
       4. Halt the system and reboot. 

	The system will now use the SBus card's Ethernet interface. 

4.5   I Have mutiple interfaces, but they show up as the same
  ethernet MAC address as my built-in interface. Setting NVRAM
  parameter local-mac-address?=true does not seem to effect the address.

The ethernet address is a station address, not an interface address. 
 All interfaces of one "station" (e.g.  a workstation) share the
 same ethernet address.  Multiple interfaces do
not get different ethernet addresses.  The drivers in Sun systems get
the MAC address from the PROM on the system.   The MAC address does not
come from the ethernet chip or interface hardware.  There is just one
ethernet MAC address for all interfaces on a system. 

The NVRAM parameter local-mac-address?  is presently reserved.

Some network configurations require Unique MAC addresses.
To change the Ethernet address for interface use ifconfig(1M).

          example% ifconfig le0 ether aa:1:2:3:4:5
This change can be set permenantly in /etc/rc2.d/S72inetsvc

 using  .enet-addr	Displays the  current Ethernet address

4.6  How to know the actual Ethernet Address?
  use "banner "command at Open Boot Pr ok prompt.
  or at OK prmpt use:
	".enet-addr " Displays the  current Ethernet address

	Use the command dmesg and or examine file /var/adm/messages
		Example output:    Ethernet address = 8:0:20:73:f:cc

 	ifconfig returns the ether address, only if run by root.

                     Example output from ordinary user:

        % ifconfig -a
        le0: flags=63
                inet netmask ffffff00 broadcast

                     Example output from superuser (root):

        # ifconfig -a
        le0: flags=63
                inet netmask ffffff00 broadcast
                ether 8:0:20:9:ae:a2

03.12Q: Does my Ethernet coax have to be grounded?  How?
     A:  The 10Base2 spec says the coax MAY be grounded at one
        and only  one point, while  the 10Base5 spec says the coax SHALL be
        grounded at one and only one point.

        Grounding  your coax  is  generally  you  should  absolutely
        install cabling according to your electrical codes.
Booting over net.

 If the auto-boot? parameter is set to true (default), and the diag-switch? parameter is set to true (not the default), the operating system is booted using the device alias net.
 Boot operating system  (/kernel/unix) from network automatically only if diag-device 
 is set to net (default setting)

General Troubleshooting:
   *  Network hardware problems, such as improper network termination, a
     misseated board, a loose connector, or degenerated media causing
     network noise.

   *  A poorly configured operating system kernel that occupies more than
     the necessary amount of memory

   *  The mounted file system - the way utilities are distributed can cause
     successive RPC (Remote Procedure Calls) calls

   *  Client-side bottlenecks leading to excessive paging over the network

   *  Server CPU or disk I/O bottlenecks resulting in slow access times

   *  NFS request retransmissions creating network congestion

4.10 : Le and Ie Diagnostic erros and messages:

le%d: transmitter frozen -- resetting
	A bug  in  the  LANCE
     	chip has caused the chip's transmitter section to stop.  The
     	driver has detected this  condition  and  reinitialized  the

le%d: out of mbufs: output packet dropped 
	The  driver  has
     	run  out  of memory to use to buffer packets on output.  The
     	packet being transmitted at the time of occurrence is  lost.
     	This  error  is  usually symptomatic of trouble elsewhere in
     	the kernel.

le%d: stray transmitter interrupt  
	The LANCE chip  has  signalled  that  it  
	completed  transmitting  a  packet but the
     	driver has sent no such packet.

le%d: LANCE Rev C/D Extra Byte(s) bug; Packet dropped   
	The LANCE  chip's internal silo pointers have become misaligned.
     	This error arises from a chip bug.

le%d: trailer error 
	An incoming packet claimed  to  have  a
     	trailing header but did not.

le%d: runt packet  
	An incoming packet's size was  below  the
     	Ethernet minimum transmission size.

le%d: Receive buffer error - BUFF bit set in rmd  
	This error ``should  never  happen,''  
	as it occurs only in conjunction
     	with a LANCE feature that the driver does not use.

le%d: Received packet with STP  bit  in  rmd  cleared   
	This error ``should never happen,'' 
	as it occurs only in conjunc-
     	tion with a LANCE feature that the driver does not use.

le%d: Received packet with ENP  bit  in  rmd  cleared   
	This error ``should never happen,'' 
	as it occurs only in conjunc-
     	tion with a LANCE feature that the driver does not use.

le%d: Transmit buffer error - BUFF bit set in tmd       
	Excessive bus  contention  has prevented the LANCE chip from gathering
     	packet contents  quickly  enough  to  sustain  the  packet's
     	transmission  over  the  Ethernet.   The  affected packet is

le%d: Transmit late collision -  Net problem?  
	A packet collision  has  occurred  after  the  channel's  slot  
	time has elapsed.  This error usually indicates faulty hardware else-
     	where on the net.

le%d: No carrier - transceiver  cable  problem?   
	The  LANCE chip  has  lost input to its carrier detect pin 
	while trying to transmit a packet.

le%d: Transmit retried more than 16 times - net jammed      	
	Network  activity has become so intense that sixteen successive
     	transmission attempts failed, causing the LANCE chip to give
     	up on the current packet.

le%d: missed packet  
	The  driver  has  dropped  an  incoming
     	packet because it had no buffer space for it.

le%d: Babble error - sent a packet longer than the maximum length   
	While  transmitting  a  packet,  the LANCE chip has
     	noticed that the packet's length exceeds the maximum allowed
     	for Ethernet.  This error indicates a kernel bug.

le%d: Memory Error!  
	Ethernet chip memory access timed  out
     	The LANCE chip timed out while trying to acquire the bus for
     	a DVMA transfer.

le%d: Reception stopped  
	Because of some  other  error,  the
     	receive  section  of  the LANCE chip shut down and had to be

le%d: Transmission stopped  
	Because of some other error, the
     	transmit  section  of the LANCE chip shut down and had to be

le0: no upper interface for 802.3 packet
	This is probably due to the past install an old release
	(4.0 or earlier) of SunLink OSI or DNI.  This is caused
	by something on your net broadcasting an 802.3 packet.  Note that
	0060 and 0028 are not legal Ethernet packet types.  This implies that
	they are 802.3 packets.  The standard Ethernet driver thows these away;
	the one delivered with OSI and DNI contains code for handling 802.3
	packets. The message is generated when no upper layer client for this 
	packet type is known.


ie0 spurious interrupt
ie0 command not accepted
panic: iechkcca
	(see June STP, section #2)
	Iechkcca panic associated with hardware addressing and  
	possible priority problems/conflicts. Review the following:

	1) Hardware problem
	2) identify cause (offending hardware)
	3) If Sun hardware, then
	     -check board jumpers, switches, etc
	     -swap board out
	4) If non-Sun board
	     -we don't support
	     -mention consulting help available

ie0: WARNING if_snd full
	This message probably shouldn't be passed on to the customer, 
	because all it means is that the driver wants to send packets
	and the output queue filled up before all of them got out.  Some
	of these type messages (like WARNING: ie0: requeueing) are being
	removed from newer releases because, although they indicate a high
	traffic situation, they are not necessarily fatal.  This queue
	overflow can occur because of a hardware failure on the cpu or a
	coax or tranceiver problem, but if it's only happening once in awhile
	it probably is just indicating a busy net.

nd0: output error 55
	(related to above error ie0: WARNING if_snd full)
	comes from the next layer up in software and is a direct result of
	the first error.  You were right about the /usr/include/sys/errno.h
	description of "no buffer space available".  The driver got backed up
	when the output queue filled up, but the kernel was still allocating
	buffer space for more packets and just ran out of mbufs, resulting in
	this error.

le0: Memory error!

This message indicates that the network interface encountered an
access time-out from the CPU's main memory. There is probably
nothing wrong except system overload.

If the system is busy with other processes, this error can occur
frequently. If possible, try to reduce the system load by
quitting applications or killing some processes.

The Lance Ethernet chip timed out while trying to acquire the bus
for a DVMA transfer. Most network applications wait for a
transfer to occur, so generally no data gets lost. However, data
transfer might fail after too many time-outs.

For more information about the Lance Ethernet chip, see the
le(7D) man page.

le0: No carrier-- cable disconnected or hub link test disabled?

Standalone machines with no Ethernet port connection get this
error when the system triesto access the network. If the
Ethernet cable is disconnected, SPARC machines with the sun4m
architecture usually display this message, whereas machines with
the sun4c architecture usually display the "le0: No carrier--
transceiver cable problem" message instead. If the Ethernet cable
is connected, this message could result from a mismatch between
the machine's NVRAM settings and the Ethernet hub settings.

If this message is continuous, try to save any workto local

When a machine is configured as a networked system, it must be
plugged into the Ethernet with a twisted pair J45 connector.

If the Ethernet cable is plugged in, find out whether or not the
Ethernet hub does a Link Integrity Test. Then become superuser to
check and possibly set the machine's NVRAM. If the hub's Link
Integrity Test is disabled, set this variable to false.

# eeprom | grep tpe tpe-link-test?=true # eeprom 'tpe-link-

The default setting is true. If for some reason tpe-link-test?
was set to false,and the hub's Link Integrity Test is enabled,
set this variable to true.

le0: No carrier-- transceiver cable problem?

Standalone machines with no Ethernet port connection If
the network test fails, check the Ethernet port, card, fuse, and
cable, replacing them if necessary. Also check the twisted pair
port to make sure it is patched to the correct subnet.

For more information on packets, see SPARC: Installing Solaris
Software. If you are using the AnswerBook, "ARP/RARP" isa good
search string.

4.11 How do I define a second TCP/IP address for my ethernet?

You can define up to 255 "logical addresses" for a given
network interface on Solaris.  There is no supported method
to do so on SunOS 4.1.X.

Here is an example of adding an le0:1 network interface:

# ifconfig le0:1 netmask broadcast


# ifconfig -a
lo0: flags=849 mtu 8232
	inet netmask ff000000 
le0: flags=863 mtu 1500
	inet netmask ffffff00 broadcast
	ether 8:0:20:23:61:d9 
le0:1: flags=842 mtu 1500
	inet netmask ffffff00 broadcast

netstat -i
Name  Mtu  Net/Dest      Address        Ipkts  Ierrs Opkts  Oerrs Collis Queue 
lo0   8232     localhost      235599 0     235599 0     0      0   /net/osseast.east/sunsolvehome/data/patches/SunOS: No such file or directory
le0   1500  jedi           2800863 7094  707901 17    92577  0     
le0:1 1500       0      0     0      0     0      0     

5.0: Patches

The following is the list of all of the Ethernet related patches for
4.1.3, 4.1.3_u1, 4.1.4, 5.3 and 5.4. If you are having Ethernet
problems, installing the patches is a good place to start, especially
if you recognize the general symptoms noted below.
In order for a machine to be stable, all of the recommended patches
should be installed as well. The list of recommended patches for your
operating system is available from

5.1: Ethernet Driver Patches for SunOS: 

SunOS 4.1.3	
100768-02 (le)  

SunOS 4.1.3_U1  
101954-06 (le)  
102143-01 (ie)  

SunOS 4.1.4 	
102430-02 (le)  

5.2: Ethernet Driver Patches for Solaris: 

Solaris 2.3 	
101306-10 (le)  
101820-07 (be)  
102272-01 (sun4m-iommu)  
101306-10 (qe)  

Solaris 2.4 	
102001-08 (le, be, and qe SuperJumbo Patch)  
102038-02 (Sparc5-iommu)  
102332-01 (sun4m-ledma)  
102729-01 (point patch for SS5 & SS20)  

Solaris 2.4x86  
atch-ID#  (le)  
102065-02 (smc)  

Solaris 2.5
There is a "T" patch, T102979-01, for the fastethernet driver for 2.5.
It fixes one bug:  1225810 memory leakage in be driver

5.3: ARP Patches for SunOS

 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3:  
              server not responding due to limits of arp

  Corrects problems caused by the arp table being limited to 512 entries.
  Should be installed if you are hitting 512 arp entries.

6.0: Known Bugs & RFEs

6.1: RFEs

	***Under construction***

6.2: Bugs

	***Under construction**7.0: References

7.1  Glossary:

  AUI "Attachment Unit Interface" - the Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 term for
       the interface between a MAU and a station.  A special kind of
       cable known as an "AUI Cable" can attach a MAU to a station at a
       distance (up to 50 meters).

  MAU "Media Adaptor Unit" - an IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet device which
       attaches a station to the cable.  Popularly called a
       "transceiver".  Can be attached by cable to the station or built
       into the station.

  OSI Reference Model - A model put forth by the ISO for
     communication between computer equipment and networks, which
     maps out 7 protocol layers.

       Top layer:    layer number 7:   application layer
                     layer number 6:   presentation layer
                     layer number 5:   session layer
                     layer number 4:   transport layer
                     layer number 3:   network layer
                     layer number 2:   data-link layer (e.g. IEEE 802.x)
       Bottom layer: layer number 1:   physical layer (wire &

     Repeater - In the "Ethernet" world, a "relay" that regenerates and
       cleans up signals, but does no buffering of data packets.
       It can extend an Ethernet by strengthening signals, but timing
       limitations on Ethernets still limit their size.

     Router - A network "relay" that uses a protocol beyond the
       data-link protocol to route traffic between LANs and other
       network links.

     Switched Ethernet - really the same as Ethernet as far as
       standards go: acts like a very fast multiport Ethernet bridge
       giving an Ethernet to each station.  Presumably based on
       10BASE-T for most stations.

     TCP/IP "Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol" -
       literally, two protocols developed for the Defense Data Network
       to allow their ARPANET to attach to other networks relatively
       transparently.  The name also designates the entire family of
       protocols built out of IP and TCP.  The Internet is based upon

     Concentrator - a device which allows a number of stations to
       be connected to a LAN.  In the case of Ethernet, it is
       simply a multi-port repeater.  In the case of ring networks
       like Token Ring and FDDI, it acts as a switch which keeps
       the ring intact even if individual devices are unplugged.

     Coaxial Cable - any of a number of kinds of electrical
       communications cable designed so one conductor is in the center
       and the second conductor forms a ring around it.  Depending upon
       who you talk to, someone might have a specific kind of coaxial
       cable in mind.  Some well known kinds are various Cable TV
       cables, cables used by IBM 327x terminals and ARCNet, and cables
       used by Ethernet & IEEE 802.3.

     Ethernet - LAN data-link protocol developed by a consortium
       of vendors, later standardized as IEEE 802.3 with a few
       modifications.  For many applications, users have not adopted
       all the IEEE 802.3 differences.  Ethernet/802.3 now can be
       run on two types of coaxial cable as well as multi-mode
       fiber and unshielded twisted-pair.  "Raw" rate of data
       transmission is 10 megabits/second.

     Fast Ethernet Alliance - Group of vendors working on a 100Mbps
       version of IEEE 802.3.  They intend to submit their proposals
       for approval by the IEEE for a new set of 802.3 standards called

     Hub - a nebulous term, typically applied to a multiport repeater
       or concentrator consisting of a chassis with slots to be
       populated by cards, allowing it to be configured with various
       numbers and combinations of LAN ports.  Vendors of networking
       equipment often also have other types of devices that can be
       inserted in the slots such as terminal servers, bridges,
       routers, gateways, etc.

  bus topology        Consists of one central piece of cable to which network
                      devices are attached.  Its advantages are distributed
                      intelligence, ease of installation and configuration (Sun
                      Ethernet).  If one node goes down, the other nodes on a
                      bus network are not disturbed.

  CSMA/CD             Carrier Sense Multiple-Access Collision Detection
                      (CSMA/CD) is an access method which is how two or more
                      Sun workstations can share a single channel bus
                      transmission medium.  Ethernet uses this access method.

  carrier sense       The carrier sense is a mechanism that listens to the line
                      prior to attempting transmission.

  multiple-access     Multiple-access is the means by which any node can access
                      the line at any time instead of waiting for a designated
                      time slot or token.

  collision detection Collision detection intervenes when a collision between
                      two or more transmissions occurs.  Through the collision
                      detection, a node is able to sense and recover from the
                      event by randomly scheduling a retransmission of the same

  controller          Refers to the Ethernet controller in the workstation.

  transceiver cable   Connects the controller to the transceiver tap on the
                      coaxial cable or to a Multiplexor (MUX) box.

  transceiver box     Provides electrical isolation between the coaxial cable
                      and the transceiver cable.

  multiplexor box     Enables the attachment of up to eight transceiver cables
                      to a single transceiver tap into your coaxial cable.

  coaxial cable       Forms the backbone of the Ethernet system.

  router              Joins two local networks.

  gateway             Enables networks using different protocols to

7.2: Important Man Pages

add_drv(1M)     add a new device driver to the system
admintool(1M)   system  administration  with  a  graphical  user interface
arp(7)          Address Resolution Protocol
be(7)           BigMAC Fast Ethernet device driver
boot(1M)        start the system kernel or a standalone program
bufmod(7)       STREAMS Buffer Module
devlinks(1M)    adds /dev entries for miscellaneous  devices  and pseudo-devices
dlpi(7)         Data Link Provider Interface
driver.conf(4)  driver.conf - driver configuration file
eeprom(1M)      EEPROM display and load utility 
el(7)           3COM 3C503 Ethernet device driver
elink(7)        3COM 3C507 Ethernet device driver
elx(7)          3COM EtherLink III Ethernet device drive
ethers(4)       Ethernet address to hostname database or domain
hosts(4)        hosts - host name database
icmp(7)         Internet Control Message Protocol
ie(7)           Intel 82586 Ethernet device driver
iee(7)          Intel EtherExpress 16 Ethernet device driver
ifconfig(1M)    ifconfig - configure network interface parameters
in.rarpd(1M)    DARPA Reverse Address Resolution  Protocol
in.routed(1M)   routed - network routing daemon
inet(3N)        inet, inet_addr,  inet_network - Internet address manipulation
ip(7)           Internet Protocol
kernel(1M)      UNIX  system  executable  file  containing  basic operating system services
le(7)           le, lebuffer, ledma - Am7990 (LANCE) Ethernet device driver
modinfo(1M)     display information about loaded kernel modules
monitor(1M)     SPARC system PROM monitor
ndd(1M)         get and set driver configuration parameters
netconfig(4)    network configuration database
openprom(7)     PROM monitor configuration interface
perfmeter(1)    display system performance values in multiple dials or strip charts
prtconf(1M)     print system configuration
pseudo(4)       configuration files for pseudo device drivers
qe(7)           QEC/MACE Ethernet device driver
routing(4)      system support for packet network routing
sbus(4)         configuration files for SBus device drivers
smc(7)          SMC 8003/8013/8216 Ethernet device driver
smce(7)         SMC 3032/EISA dual-channel Ethernet device driver
snoop(1M)       capture and inspect network packets
sys-unconfig(1M) undo a system's configuration
sysbus(4)       configuration files for ISA, EISA, and MCA bus device drivers
sysdef(1M)      output system definition
sysidtool(1M)   sysidtool, sysidnet, sysidnis, sysidsys, sysidroot -system configuration
tcp(7)          Internet Transmission Control Protocol
ticlts(7)       loopback transport providers
tr(7)           IBM 16/4 Token Ring Network Adapter device driver
traceroute 4.x
udp(7)          Internet User Datagram Protocol

7.3: Sun SRDBs

*** Under construction ****

7.4: Sun Educational Services

There aren't any specific courses available.

7.5: Solaris Documentation

*** Under construction ****

7.6: Third Party Documentation


                         NETWORK/DATA LINK LAYER RFCs
        RFC-826        An Ethernet address resolution protocol
        RFC-894        Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams
                       over Ethernet networks
        RFC-903        A Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
        RFC-906  *     Bootstrap loading using TFTP
        RFC-950  *  +  Internet standard subnetting procedure
        RFC-1027 *  +  Using ARP to implement transparent subnet gateways
        RFC-1042 *     Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams over
                       IEEE 802 networks
        RFC-1051 *     Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams and ARP
                       packets over ARCNET networks
        RFC-1103 *     Proposed standard for the transmission of IP datagrams
                       over FDDI Networks
	RFC-1122 *  +  Requirements for Internet hosts - communication layer
	RFC-1127 *  +  Perspective on the Host Requirements RFCs
	RFC-1134 *     Point-to-Point Protocol: A proposal for multi-protocol 
	               transmission of datagrams over Point-to-Point links
	RFC-1171 *     Point-to-Point Protocol for the transmission of 
	               multi-protocol datagrams over Point-to-Point links
	RFC-1172 *     Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) initial configuration 

stb 910
8.0: Supportability

Under Construction

9.0 Additional Support

Under Construction



Revision History

작성일자 : 96.08.12
작성자 : 이민호

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